Mercury in vedic astrology
According to the Linga Purana, Mercury is the son of the Moon by his wife Rohini.
Yet in the Vishnu Purana, Brahma Purana, Devi Bhagvata Bhagwat Purana, Harivansha Purana, Padma Purana and Vayu Purana a story is told of the seduction of Brahaspati's (Jupiter's) wife Tara by the Moon - and Buddha is born from her. He is called Saumya, that is, "Son of Soma [Moon]." From Buddha springs the lunar race. The Moon, being his father, is friendly toward him, but Mercury knows that he is son of the wife of Jupiter and so he is in conflict with the Moon, who seduced his mother.
Mercury is sexless and neutral and is a cold and moist planet. Being a neutral planet it changes according to its placement in a sign and house, and that is why it is said to have a "mercurial" nature. Because it is nearest to the Sun it is restless, which also makes it quick-changing, fickle, and often retrograde. Mercury sometimes precedes the Sun and sometimes follows it.
Mercury can be seen in the morning and evening as a shining star and sometimes even during the day because of its power of radiation. Mercury is the smallest planet of our solar system. Being adaptable, it becomes malefic when conjunct with Mars and makes its natives nervous, overly excit-able, and insecure.
Mercury rules education, writers, lecturers, artists, teachers, traders, businessmen, the nervous system, lungs, and intestines. It rules intelligence, speech, self-confidence, humor, wit, astrology, mathematics, and short journeys.
As a lord of Gemini Mercury has two faces : it gives a double nature and makes one detached and independent as well as an extremist. Its color is the green of a blade of fresh grass.
Mercury is dominated by the three doshas wind, bile, and mucus, all rajasic. Earth is its element, it is a merchant by nature, shudra by caste, lover of humor and wit, ever green, weak in body constitution, delicate, having mixed feelings. Mercury loves the company of learned people, and is the lord of the direction North.
The day related to Mercury is Wednesday, while the gemstone related to Mercury is emerald. Mercury rules number 5 in indian numerology.
The Venus in vedic astrology
Venus, known as Shukra in Hindu mythology, is the son of the great seer Bhrigu. Bhrigu was an astrologer and taught his son all of the spiritual sciences and scriptures. Because of Shukra's enmity toward Brahaspati (Jupiter), he (Shukra) agreed to be the teacher of the asuras (antigods). When Shukra became the preceptor of the antigods, in order to protect them against the gods and subgods he worshiped Shiva and learned from him the method by which he could bring them back to life even after they were killed in battle. Shukra in Sanskrit means "semen".
Rajasik in nature, Venus belongs to the Brahmin caste. An embodiment of love, he is a benefic planet and governs the refined attributes, romance, beauty, sensuality, passion, comforts, luxuries, jewelry, wealth, art, music, dance, season of spring, rains and the bed-room.
Venus is also important because of its association with the science of mantras and Ayurvedic medicine, Tantra, the casting of spells, hypnotism, mesmerism, and alchemy.
When rightly aspected Venus is strong, and it brings wealth, comfort, attraction to the opposite sex in the early part of life. It makes its natives tender, gentle and considerate. They are lovers of jewelry, sour (pungent) taste, white dresses, decoration, perfumes, tasty foods and the fine arts.
Its' metal is silver, it's gemstone diamond, the day is Friday and the direction is southeast. Venus rules number 6 in indian numerology.
The Ketu in vedic astrology
Ketu is what remains of the body of Rahu.
Ketu is a headless half-planet, shadowy as Rahu and malefic, though not as malefic as Rahu. It is therefore considered a moksha-karak (cause of liberation from the cycle of birth and death). It bestows spiritual tendencies, ascetism and nonattachment to worldly desires and ambitions.
Ketu is also a half-planet that bestows wisdom, powers of discrimination, and gyana - spiritual knowledge, the knowledge of the self. It gives psychic abilities to its natives and makes them masters of the healing arts, natural healing, healing herbs, spices, foods, tantric healing, healing of persons possessed by evil spirits, ghosts and astral forces. Ketu natives also have the ability to go unnoticed or merge into the crowd of common folk.
Ketu's effects are similar to those of Mars, but this is only one way of describing the malefic effect and power of Ketu.
Ketu can be more destructive if it is inauspiciously positioned in the horoscopes. Ketu destroys the potency of the planet with which it is conjunct making the planet behave in an uncontrollable manner. It is tamasik, of hybrid generation, malefic, awful, and devious in nature.
Ketu is neither feminine nor masculine, wind-dominated, aged, powerful at night, animalistic, obsessive, compulsive and unconscious in behavior. It is associated with a smoky-grey colour and Ketu's gemstone is cat's-eye. Ketu rules number 7 in indian numerology.
The Saturn in vedic astrology
In Sanskrit he is called Shani or Shanaishchara (the slow mover), because he takes about two and a half years or so to pass through each constellation of the sidereal zodiac.
In the Linga Purana it is said that Shani was born from the solar deity Rudra. The Markandeya Purana states that Shani is the son of the Sun god by his wife Chaya (shadow).
Saturn is cold and dry, tamasik (lethargic) and an elderly planet. His sight is bad, and he is said to be "malefic amongst the malefics."
Saturn destroys the house it occupies (except if positioned in the seventh house, where it receives directional strength) and any houses it aspects or any planet it conjoins or aspects.
When well placed it gives its natives integrity, wisdom, spirituality, fame, patience, ability to lead, authority, long life, organizational abilities, sincerity, honesty, love of justice and awareness of right and wrong.
When ill-posited it brings miseries, sorrow, delay, obstruction, disappointment, disputes, dejection, difficulties. Saturnine natives are defensive, nervous and secretive.
Saturn rules the direction west, Saturday is its day, black is its color and blue sapphire is the gemstone of Saturn. Saturn rules number 8 in indian numerology.
The Mars in vedic astrology
Mars is said to be the commander-in-chief of the assembly of the nine planets. It is also personified as the god of war. Is a warrior by nature - bile-dominated in temperament. He rules over courage, bravery, patience, self-confidence and leadership abilities.
Mars makes its natives short-tempered; argumentative; lovers of weapons, commanders, generals, soldiers and policemen. It also gives them great technical and mechanical abilities.
Mars is fond of law and order and arrangement. It gives energy, drive, determination, a strong sense of purpose, great administrative ability and independent spirit. The gemstone of Mars is Coral. Mars rules number 9 in indian numerology.